Covaris highlighted on Fox Business News and Discovery Channel

Covaris featured in recent Health Heroes episode broadcast on Fox Business News and Discovery Channel.

 

Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue

Nanduri B, Shack LA, Rai AN, et al. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue. Anal Biochem. 2016;515:9-13.

Abstract:

To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics.

Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Long-Lasting Immunity Against Hepatitis C Virus Which Is Blunted by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Cai C, Koch B, Morikawa K, et al. Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Induce Long-Lasting Immunity Against Hepatitis C Virus Which Is Blunted by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Front Immunol. 2018;9:723.

Abstract:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the role of macrophage-derived EVs in immune responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the potential of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to modulate this modality of innate immunity. To this end, EVs were isolated from interferon-stimulated macrophage cultures or from serum of patients with acute or chronic hepatitis C. EVs were characterized by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, RNA-sequencing, and Western blot analysis. The effect of EVs on replication of HCV was assessed in coculture models. Functional analyses were performed to assess the impact of PUFAs on EV-mediated antiviral immunity. We found that macrophages secreted various cytokines shortly after stimulation with type I and II IFN, which orchestrated a fast but short-lasting antiviral state. This rapid innate immune answer was followed by the production of macrophage-derived EVs, which induced a late, but long-lasting inhibitory effect on HCV replication. Of note, exposure of macrophages to PUFAs, which are important regulators of immune responses, dampened EV-mediated antiviral immune responses. Finally, EVs from patients with hepatitis C exhibited long-lasting antiviral activities during IFN therapy as well. The antiviral effect of EVs from Caucasian and Japanese patients differed, which may be explained by different nutritional uptake of PUFAs. In conclusion, our data indicate that macrophage-derived EVs mediate long-lasting inhibitory effects on HCV replication, which may bridge the time until efficient adaptive immune responses are established, and which can be blunted by PUFAs.

Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 Regulates LSD1 Alternative Splicing to Promote Terminal Differentiation of Neural Progenitors

Hwang I, Cao D, Na Y, et al. Far Upstream Element-Binding Protein 1 Regulates LSD1 Alternative Splicing to Promote Terminal Differentiation of Neural Progenitors. Stem Cell Reports. 2018;10(4):1208-1221.

Abstract:

Loss of a cell’s ability to terminally differentiate because of mutations is a selected genetic event in tumorigenesis. Genomic analyses of low-grade glioma have reported recurrent mutations of far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FUBP1). Here, we show that FUBP1 expression is dynamically regulated during neurogenesis and that its downregulation in neural progenitors impairs terminal differentiation and promotes tumorigenesis collaboratively with expression of IDH1R132H. Mechanistically, collaborative action between SRRM4 and FUBP1 is necessary for mini-exon splicing of the neurospecific LSD1+8a isoform. LSD1+8a was downregulated upon loss of FUBP1 in neural progenitors, thereby impairing terminal neuronal differentiation and maturation. Reinforcing LSD1+8a expression in FUBP1-downregulated neural progenitors restored terminal differentiation and suppressed tumorigenesis; hence, LSD1+8a is an obligatory effector of FUBP1-dependent neuronal differentiation. These findings establish a direct role for FUBP1 in neuronal differentiation and also explain its tumor-suppressor function in the nervous system.