Control “bottom up” API Nucleation and Crystal Growth

In either a batch or a continuous flow solvent/anti-solvent reaction process, AFA-Energetics™ enables temperature-controlled nanoparticle formation that would otherwise yield large, highly variable, unusable particle sizes

  • Formulate crystalline nano- OR micro-sized particles
  • Accelerate kinetic energy reactions with extreme mixing velocities in isothermal conditions with a non-contact process
  • Integrate PAT for automated, real time feedback, and Quality Control

The AFA-Energetics Zone
… enables batch-to-continuous processes



designed for extreme turbulence
precise temperature control
non-contact environment

* flow cell OR batch vessel








Ibuprofen with AFA produces 700 nm particles while untreated samples are large, uneven clumps.

Flow Apparatus Example


User Defines Crystal Size in Continuous Flow














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[tab title=”Features
& Benefits”]

Unprecedented thermal control

Enable sample processing temperatures from 4° C to 60° C

Computer Controlled

Automated, computer controlled processing


From 100 μL batch mode to continuous process streams


Eliminates risk of contamination


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Covaris S-Series Focused-ultrasonicator
Single vessel processing from 300µL through 18mL sample volumes:
• Discovery
• Animal dosing
• Method development
AFA Process Vessels
AFA Process Vessels: optimized for AFA processing
From 100µL to continuous flow manufacturing
• 100% self contained
• Inert materials
• Designed for maximum acoustical effectiveness

[tab title=”Crystallization

AFA-Nanocrystal™ Production Batch-scale (2mL) Felodipine Preparation Protocol

AFA-Nanocrystal™ Production Batch-scale (2mL) Indomethacin Preparation Protocol

AFA-Nanocrystal™ Production Batch-scale (2mL) Cinnarizine (CNZ) Preparation Protocol

Preparation of Felodipine Nanosuspension (2 ml) by crystallization through AFA technology

[tab title=”References”]

Continuous nanoparticle production using focused acoustics

Continuous flow AFA-Nanocrystal™ production using a solvent/antisolvent method.

Poster abstract for 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting Nov 8-13, Salt Lake City, UT


Controlling Crystallization with Adaptive Focused Acoustics

Poster: He et al., 2013. Flow Chemistry Congress, Boston, MA


Crystal Nucleation of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Experimental Results and New Knowledge
Master’s Degree Thesis: Alexandra Franzén, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (2011).


WO2011/102787 A1

Patent: Lindfors et al., 2011. Process for Preparation of Crystalline Nano-particle Suspensions.

[tab title=”Case

Case Study 1: Crystallization by Solvent / Anti-solvent

Case Study 2: Cooling Crystallization



Click image to enlarge